Category Archives: Politics

President Barack Obama defeats Romney to win re-election

President Barack Obama has been re-elected to a second term, defeating Republican challenger Mitt Romney. America’s first black president secured more than the 270 votes in the electoral college needed to win. In his victory speech before supporters in Chicago, Mr Obama said he would talk to Mr Romney about “where we can work together to move this country forward”.

Source: BBC.

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مصطلحات سياسية ومعانيها

أرستقراطية :
تعني باللغة اليونانية سُلطة خواص الناس، وسياسياً تعني طبقة اجتماعية ذات منـزلة عليا تتميز بكونها موضع اعتبار المجتمع ، وتتكون من الأعيان
الذين وصلوا إلى مراتبهم ودورهم في المجتمع عن طريق الوراثة ،واستقرت هذه المراتب على أدوار الطبقات الاجتماعية الأخرى، وكانت طبقة الارستقراطية تتمثل في الأشراف الذين كانوا ضد الملكية في القرون الوسطى ،وعندما ثبتت سلطة الملوك بإقامة الدولة الحديثة تقلصت صلاحية هذه الطبقة السياسية واحتفظت بالامتيازات المنفعية، وتتعارض الارستقراطية مع الديمقراطية

أيديولوجية:
هي ناتج عملية تكوين نسق فكري عام يفسر الطبيعة والمجتمع والفرد، ويحدد موقف فكري معين يربط الأفكار في مختلف الميادين الفكرية والسياسية والأخلاقية والفلسفية

بورجوازية :
تعبير فرنسي الأصل كان يُطلق في المدن الكبيرة في العصور الوسطى على طبقة التجار وأصحاب الأعمال الذين كانوا يشغلون مركزاً وسطاً بين طبقة النبلاء من جهة والعمال من جهة أخرى، ومع انهيار المجتمع الإقطاعي قامت البورجوازية باستلام زمام الأمور الاقتصادية والسياسية واستفادت من نشوء العصر الصناعي ؛ حتى أصبحت تملك الثروات الزراعية والصناعية والعقارية، مما أدى إلى قيام الثورات الشعبية ضدها الاستلام السلطة عن طريق مصادرة الثروة الاقتصادية والسلطة السياسية.
والبورجوازية عند الاشتراكيين والشيوعيين تعني الطبقة الرأسمالية المستغلة في الحكومات الديمقراطية الغربية التي تملك وسائل الإنتاج

دكتاتورية :
كلمة ذات أصل يوناني رافقت المجتمعات البشرية منذ تأسيسها ، تدل في معناها السياسي حالياً على سياسة تصبح فيها جميع السلطات بيد شخص واحد يمارسها حسب إرادته، دون اشتراط موافقة الشعب على القرارات التي يتخذها

ديمقراطية :
مصطلح يوناني مؤلف من لفظين الأول (ديموس) ومعناه الشعب، والآخر (كراتوس) ومعناه سيادة، فمعنى المصطلح إذاً سيادة الشعب أو حكم الشعب . والديمقراطية نظام سياسي اجتماعي تكون فيه السيادة لجميع المواطنين ويوفر لهم المشاركة الحرة في صنع التشريعات التي تنظم الحياة العامة، والديمقراطية كنظام سياسي تقوم على حكم الشعب لنفسه مباشرة، أو بواسطة ممثلين منتخبين بحرية كاملة ( كما يُزعم ! ) ، وأما أن تكون الديمقراطية اجتماعية أي أنها أسلوب حياة يقوم على المساواة وحرية الرأي والتفكير، وأما أن تكون اقتصادية تنظم الإنتاج وتصون حقوق العمال، وتحقق العدالة الاجتماعية.
إن تشعب مقومات المعنى العام للديمقراطية وتعدد النظريات بشأنها، علاوة على تميز أنواعها وتعدد أنظمتها، والاختلاف حول غاياتها ، ومحاولة تطبيقها في مجتمعات ذات قيم وتكوينات اجتماعية وتاريخية مختلفة، يجعل مسألة تحديد نمط ديمقراطي دقيق وثابت مسألة غير واردة
عملياً، إلا أن للنظام الديمقراطي ثلاثة أركان أساسية

أ‌- حكم الشعب .
ب-المساواة .
ج‌- الحرية الفكرية .

ومعلوم استغلال الدول لهذا الشعار البراق الذي لم يجد تطبيقًا حقيقيًا له على أرض الواقع ؛ حتى في أعرق الدول ديمقراطية – كما يقال – . ومعلوم أيضًا تعارض بعض مكونات هذا الشعار البراق الذي افتُتن به البعض مع أحكام الإسلام

المصدر: صيد الفوائد

Russian Troops Land In Syria

Archived image - Russian troops

A Russian anti-terror squad has arrived in the port city of Tartus on the Iman oil tanker, according to ABC News. The Russian gov’t news agency, RIA Novosti‘s Arabic language site announced the arrival. The Russian embassy in the U.S. had no comment. Russia is one of Pres. Bashar Assad‘s strongest allies and has blocked numerous U.N. resolutions that call for Assad to step down.

source: Investors

FIFA President’s statement on Egypt disaster

Source Getty Images

“I am very shocked and saddened to learn this evening that a large number of football supporters have died or been injured following a match in Port Said, Egypt.

My thoughts are with the families of those who have lost their lives this evening.

This is a black day for football. Such a catastrophic situation is unimaginable and should not happen.”

source:Fifa

ما هو سكاف؟!

SCAF means: The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

سكاف تعني : 

المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة – وهو المجلس الأعلى المكلف بقيادة غرفة العمليات الرئيسية للقوات المسلحة في حالة الحرب وفي الظروف الطبيعية فإن رئيس الدولة هو الذي يرأس هذا المجلس بوصفه القائد الأعلى لقوات المسلحة. أما في الوقت الراهن وتحديدا منذ مساء الجمعة 11فبراير 2011 فهذا المجلس هو الذي يتولى إدارة شؤون جمهورية مصر العربية عقب تخلي محمد حسني مبارك عن الحكم إثر اندلاع ثورة 25 يناير. يتكون المجلس من ثمانية عشر من قادة القوات المسلحة المصرية يترأسهم القائد العام للقوات المسلحة ووزير الدفاع المشير محمد حسين طنطاوي. أعلن المجلس في 13 فبراير 2011 عن توليه حكم البلاد لمدة ستة أشهر ( طبعا مر أكثر من 9 شهور ومازال المجلس يحكم البلاد ) أو لحين إجراء انتخابات مجلسي الشعب والشورى ورئيس الجمهورية، كما أعلن حلّ مجلسي الشعب والشورى وتعطيل العمل بأحكام الدستور في حين شكل لجنة تعمل على تعديل بعض مواد الدستور.

يتكون المجلس من ثمانية عشر فردًا من قادة القوات المسلحة المصرية، وهم:

  • القائد العام للقوات المسلحة وزير الدفاع ورئيس المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة المشير محمد حسين طنطاوي.

  • رئيس أركان حرب القوات المسلحة الفريق سامي حافظ عنان.

  • قائد القوات البحرية الفريق مهاب محمد حسين مميش.

  • قائد القوات الجوية الفريق رضا محمود حافظ.

  • قائد قوات الدفاع الجوي الفريق عبد العزيز سيف الدين.

  • قائد المنطقة المركزية العسكرية اللواء حسن الرويني.

  • قائد الجيش الثاني الميداني اللواء أركان حرب محمد حجازي.

  • قائد الجيش الثالث الميداني اللواء أركان حرب صدقي صبحي.

  • قائد المنطقة الشمالية اللواء أركان حرب حسن محمد أحمد.

  • قائد المنطقة الجنوبية اللواء أركان حرب محسن الشاذلي.

  • قائد المنطقة الغربية اللواء أركان حرب محمود إبراهيم حجازي.

  • قائد قوات حرس الحدود اللواء أركان حرب محمد عبد النبي.

  • مساعد وزير الدفاع للشئون الدستورية والقانونية اللواء ممدوح شاهين.

  • مساعد وزير الدفاع رئيس هيئة التنظيم والإدارة اللواء محسن الفنجري.

  • مدير إدارة الشئون المعنوية اللواء أركان حرب إسماعيل عتمان.

  • مساعد وزير الدفاع لشؤون التسليح اللواء محمد العصار.

  • مساعد وزير الدفاع اللواء مختار الملا.

ويواجهة المجلس معارضة شديد داخل مصر نتيجة لإنعدام الشفافية وإتخاذه قرارات فردية لقيامه بدور رئيس الجمهورية ودور مجلسي الشعب والشورى معاً وهي صلاحيات لم يحصل عليها الرئيس المخلوع مبارك في أفضل حالاته

source:www.omaralshal.blogspot.com

U.S. officially ends Iraq mission with flag lowering

U.S. military gear moving out of Iraq

The United States officially ended its eight-and-a-half year military campaign in Iraq Thursday, as the flag of the command was lowered in Baghdad.

Defense Secretary Leon Panetta arrived in Baghdad earlier Thursday morning for the ceremony.

Panetta is scheduled to speak at the event, along with the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Martin Dempsey and U.S. Ambassador Jim Jeffrey.

President Jalal Talabani will also be present, among other top Iraqi officials, but it is not clear if Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki will attend, an American official said.

Panetta will speak about how “Iraq really was pulled back from the brink and that we’ve been able to maintain those gains even as we’ve extracted ourselves from the equation over the last three years,” the senior defense official told reporters.

Panetta plans to thank the U.S. troops who have served there, as well as Iraqi security forces “for their tremendous sacrifices over the last 8-plus years of the war,” said the official, who briefed journalists traveling with Panetta.

The flag of the command was lowered, rolled, and placed in a case during the ceremony. That marked the official end of the mission that began with the United States-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003, aimed at toppling Saddam Hussein.

His regime fell in a matter of weeks, and he was captured in December 2003 after months in hiding, then executed after a trial by Iraq’s new authorities.

All U.S. troops must be out of Iraq by the end of this month after Washington and Baghdad failed to agree on terms under which they could remain.

There were about 5,500 American troops in Iraq as of Tuesday, the most recent day American officials in Iraq gave CNN figures.

Obama on Wednesday welcomed home returning troops from Iraq, hailing their service to help a people they didn’t know as an example of what makes America great.

“As your commander in chief, and on behalf of a grateful nation, I’m proud to finally say these two words, and I know your families agree — welcome home. Welcome home,” Obama told cheering troops at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

Obama used his Ft. Bragg speech to mark the fulfillment of a campaign pledge he made in 2008 to end the war.

Noting the nearly 4,500 Americans killed and more than 30,000 injured, Obama spoke of the heavy sacrifice and hard work in the Iraq mission.

“Because of you — because you sacrificed so much for a people that you had never met, Iraqis have a chance to forge their own destiny,” Obama said. “That’s part of what makes us special as Americans. Unlike the empires of old, we did so not for territory or for resources. We do it because it’s right.

“There can be no fuller expression of America’s support for self-determination than our leaving Iraq to its people. That says something about who we are.”

source:www.cnn.com

Robert Fisk: ‘The real fight for democracy in Egypt has yet to begin’

A Cairo newspaper editor on why the elections will not prevent protesters from returning to Tahrir Square

When it comes to economics, you don’t mess with Wael Gamal. Before becoming a managing editor of Shrouq – Sunrise, to you and me – he was economics editor of the Egyptian daily, and he casts a cold eye on soldiers who don’t understand money. “Not a single one of the 20 generals on the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces understands the economy,” he says, with a certain laugh infecting his voice, “and at their press conference the other day, all their numbers and conclusions were wrong. They wanted to scare the people off the streets by saying that Egypt will go bankrupt. The ministers were all trying to correct the statistics afterwards.”

Gamal had just voted for the secular “Revolution” list, and it was the first time he had entered a polling booth in his 40 years. “I never voted in elections before because they were all fraudulent. Before the revolution, our editor-in-chief was about to be jailed because of a report we carried on the rigged 2010 elections. I was chased by the police twice in 2003 because I was involved in the movement against the American war in Iraq.”

These are happier times, then. No police agents hover outside Shrouq’s front door. Not right now, anyway.

“The choice of [the new Prime Minister, Kamal] Ganzouri was very nasty,” Gamal says. “He intends to keep a third of the members of the old government and two of them – Hassan Younis, the Electricity Minister, and Faisal Naga, the Planning Minister – were Mubarak ministers. I think the people will return to Tahrir Square after the first voting results are announced.

“But what has happened is huge progress. Sure, people saw violations at the voting, but compared to what happened before, it was a great improvement. I am optimistic.”

This isn’t a widespread sentiment in Egypt right now. And if the Muslim Brotherhood wins the largest number of seats in the election, which they assuredly will, Gamal believes it will be under enormous pressure: from workers, from trade unions, from the US. Strikes, he says, will start again after the elections. “The Brotherhood [says it] will not change the tax policies, so they are against the poor. This will not balance the budget. I think they will fail. The economy is going to be crucial. Egypt makes lots of money through tourism. Will the Brotherhood support tourism?”

Already, new trade unions have been created, but a new workers’ rights law has been refused by the army leadership. The labour ministry has told new unions they have to merge into the old syndicates. As for Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Gamal says he is ill, that he has no intention of becoming President although this might not apply to all members of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the SCAF, which Egyptians call the Maglis el-Askleri (Military Council). The name of General Sami Amman floats around these days, although Gamal says, with a sense of relief, that “if there had been an ambitious, efficient member of the SCAF, we would have been in trouble.”

Gamal sees a divided Muslim Brotherhood, the movement having already spawned two rival parties, its youth cut off from older members, its leadership already out of agreement with the army. “They are saying that parliament should be able to form a government” – which the military does not want – “but the Brotherhood make compromises with their principals.”

He added: “This exaggeration of the power of the Brotherhood is an obsession. There are internal differences and they lost the youth from the first day [of the revolution]. As for the Salafists, they are not accepted by Egyptians, even in the countryside. They will maybe get 10 per cent of the votes.”

Oddly, Gamal suspects that the Arab revolutions may have been inspired by the overthrow of dictatorships in Latin America, “where opponents of the regimes occupied squares and fought with the police; we had the same kind of developments in social and economic life”. But when I ask about the army’s latest warning of “foreign hands” provoking violence in Tahrir Square this month, Gamal snorts with cynicism.

“This is hypocritical. They moan about foreign money going to NGOs. But they let the US donate $150m to promote the ‘transition to democracy’. The army gets $1.3bn from America. Then that’s a different matter. But the future will depend on the next confrontation. The SCAF is very, very weak. Every time 100,000 people go to Tahrir, the government falls. They are on the defensive. The problem is that people in Tahrir don’t have the power to put more pressure on, to confront the real web of interests behind the SCAF and to confront the old regime in the work places. There will be a real fight for democracy and social change.”

The old optimism is coming back to Gamal. “In just nine months, the strength of the army is collapsing. Who would have imagined that people would be shouting ‘Down with the Military Council’? This is good for political progress in Egypt.” The army, as “protectors” of a new constitution, intend to keep their privileges out of parliament’s hands, Muslim Brothers or not, which is what the Tahrir demonstrators will be complaining about again in tomorrow’s rally.

source:www.independent.co.uk

Russia unveils new radar system to counter European U.S. missile shield

MOSCOW – In its bid to counter Western plans for a U.S. missile shield in Europe, Russia on Tuesday launched a state-of-the art antimissile radar with a detection range of 6,000 kilometers, close to the borders of NATO alliance members Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic coast. Sticking to his last week’s threat to take steps to counter U.S.-led NATO missile defense system in Europe posing mortal danger for Moscow’s nuclear deterrence, President Dmitry Medvedev said, “This is the first signal of Russia’s readiness for an adequate response to the threats posed by European AMD to our strategic nuclear forces.” He was addressing the top military commanders after inaugurating the anti-missile radar in Russia’s Baltic Exclave of Kaliningrad. The Voronezh-DM radar station has been working in test mode for the whole of 2011. There were no technical failures over this period, Interfax news agency reported, quoting a source in the defense ministry. With the effective detection range of 6,000 kilometers, the Voronezh-DM is capable of working in tandem with Moscow’s missile defense system. “If our signal is not heard, as I said on November 23, we will continue deploying other means of defense,” Medvedev said in his televised remarks.

source:www.theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com