Category Archives: General Knowledge
كثير منّا رأى ما يُسمى بقناع في (V)الذي كان يرتديه بطل الفيلم الأمريكي (V For Vendetta) والذي انتشر كثيراً في بداية إندلاع الثورات العربية وتم وضع صورته على العديد من بروفايلات الفيسبوك، وكثير منّا لايعرف قصة الشخص الذي يعود له هذا القِناع.
يعود القِناع إلى شخص يُدعى ((جاي فوكس)) ولد في 13 إبريل عام 1570م بمدينة (يورك) بـ إنجلترا لأسرة بروتستانتية، لكنه تحوّل إلى الكاثوليكية عام 1604م.
عندما اعتنق ((جاي فوكس)) الكاثوليكية كان ذلك في عهد الملك ((جيمس الأول)) الذي كان يتهض الكاثوليك ويأمر بفرض الغرامات عليهم واعتقالهم
قرر مجموعة من الكاثوليك بقيادة شخص يُدعى ((روبرت كاتسباي)) التخلص من الملك ((جيمس الأول)) عن طريق عملية إرهابية، و قاموا بإشراك ((جاي فوكس)) معهم في العملية وأطلق على المجموعة إسم (مجموعة البارود) وقد بلغ عدد أفرادها 13 شخص.
قامت المجموعة بتهريب براميل من البارود في سراديب البرلمان البريطاني، وكانت مُهمة ((جاي فوكس)) هي إشعال الفتيل لتفجير البارود في 5 نوفمبر عام 1605م أثناء اجتماع الملك ((جيمس الأول)) مع اللوردات والأعيان في البرلمان البريطاني.
قبل تنفيذ العملية قام أحد أفراد المجموعة بالإعتراف لأحد الرهبان في الكنيسة التي يتردد عليها عن نيته هو و المجموعة بتفجير البرلمان البريطاني أثناء وجود الملك فيه… وذلك في لحظة شعور بالذنب لأنه سيتسبب في قتل الكثير من الأبرياء… شعر الراهب بأن مُستقبل إنجلترا في خطر، فقام بتوجيه رسالة من مجهول إلى القصر الملكي.
وهناك رواية أخرى تقول أن هناك خيانة مُتعمّدة حدثت من قِبل أحد أفراد المجموعة.
علم حرس الملك بالمؤامرة، وتم العثور على البراميل المُهيئة للإنفجار، وتم القبض على ((جاي فوكس)) وجميع المتآمرين وتم تعذيبهم حتى اعترفوا وحُكِمَ عليهم بأن يُشنقوا وتُبقر بطونهم وتُمزّق جُثثهم إلى أشلاء وتُفرّق في جميع أنحاء لندن ليكونوا عِبّرة لغيرهم.
في 31 يناير عام 1606م وأثناء صعود ((جاي فوكس)) إلى منصة الإعدام تمهيداً لشنقه قام بالقفز من على السُّلم فكُسِرَت عُنقه ومات على الفور.
بعد إعدام المُتآمرين، قام الملك ((جيمس الأول)) بتشجع المواطنين على إشعال النيران في ليلة 5 نوفمبر من كل عام احتفاءً بفشل المؤامرة ونجاة الملك… ويتم الإحتفال بهذه المُناسبة حتى الآن وتسمى بـ(ليلة البون فاير) أو (ليلة جاي فوكس) حيث يقوم البريطانيين بإطلاق الألعاب النارية وإحراق دُمية لشخص ((جاي فوكس)).
Scientists believe the position in which a person goes to sleep provides an important clue about the kind of person they are. Professor Chris Idzikowski, director of the Sleep Assessment and Advisory Service, has analysed six common sleeping positions – and found that each is linked to a particular personality type. “We are all aware of our body language when we are awake but this is the first time we have been able to see what our subconscious posture says about us. “What’s interesting is that the profile behind the posture is often very different from what we would expect.”
- The Foetus (41%):Those who curl up in the foetus position are described as tough on the outside but sensitive at heart. They may be shy when they first meet somebody, but soon relax. This is the most common sleeping position, adopted by 41% of the 1,000 people who took part in the survey. More than twice as many women as men tend to adopt this position.
- Log (15%):Lying on your side with both arms down by your side. These sleepers are easy going, social people who like being part of the in-crowd, and who are trusting of strangers. However, they may be gullible.
- The yearner (13%):People who sleep on their side with both arms out in front are said to have an open nature, but can be suspicious, cynical. They are slow to make up their minds, but once they have taken a decision, they are unlikely ever to change it.
- Soldier (8%): Lying on your back with both arms pinned to your sides. People who sleep in this position are generally quiet and reserved. They don’t like a fuss, but set themselves and others high standards.
- Freefall (7%):Lying on your front with your hands around the pillow, and your head turned to one side. Often gregarious and brash people, but can be nervy and thin-skinned underneath, and don’t like criticism, or extreme situations.
- Starfish (5%): Lying on your back with both arms up around the pillow. These sleepers make good friends because they are always ready to listen to others, and offer help when needed. They generally don’t like to be the centre of attention.
Professor Idzikowski also examined the effect of various sleeping positions on health. He concluded that the freefall position was good for digestion, while the starfish and soldier positions were more likely to lead to snoring and a bad night’s sleep. Professor Idzikowski said: “Lying down flat means that stomach contents can more readily be worked back up into the mouth, while those who lie on their back may end up snoring and breathing less well during the night. “Both these postures may not necessarily awaken the sleeper but could cause a less refreshing night’s sleep.” The research also found that most people are unlikely to change their sleeping position. Just 5% said they sleep in a different position every night.
Professor Idzikowski also found that one arm or leg sticking out of the duvet is a common position, followed by both feet poking out the end. One in ten people like to cover themselves entirely with the duvet.
Not only is this beautiful, but it also plays music when it rains.
The Neustadt Kunsthofpassage, is an artsy neighborhood in Dresden, Germany. Somebody had the genius idea to cover one wall with funnels and gutters shaped like musical instruments that capture water as it runs off the building into this elaborate drainage system.
Apparently this is in Dresden’s student district…Can you imagine the noise during a thunderstorm?
Source: Anybody Somebody Nobody.
The Official New 7 Wonders of the World have been elected by more than 100 million votes to represent global heritage throughout history. The listing is in random order, as announced at the Declaration Ceremony on 07.07.07.
This statue of Jesus stands some 38 meters tall, atop the Corcovado mountain overlooking Rio de Janeiro. Designed by Brazilian Heitor da Silva Costa and created by French sculptor Paul Landowski, it is one of the world’s best-known monuments. The statue took five years to construct and was inaugurated on October 12, 1931. It has become a symbol of the city and of the warmth of the Brazilian people, who receive visitors with open arms.
The Great Wall of China was built to link existing fortifications into a united defense system and better keep invading Mongol tribes out of China. It is the largest man-made monument ever to have been built and it is disputed that it is the only one visible from space. Many thousands of people must have given their lives to build this colossal construction.
In the 15th century, the Incan Emperor Pachacútec built a city in the clouds on the mountain known as Machu Picchu (“old mountain”). This extraordinary settlement lies halfway up the Andes Plateau, deep in the Amazon jungle and above the Urubamba River. It was probably abandoned by the Incas because of a smallpox outbreak and, after the Spanish defeated the Incan Empire, the city remained ‘lost’ for over three centuries. It was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham in 1911.
On the edge of the Arabian Desert, Petra was the glittering capital of the Nabataean empire of King Aretas IV (9 B.C. to 40 A.D.). Masters of water technology, the Nabataeans provided their city with great tunnel constructions and water chambers. A theater, modelled on Greek-Roman prototypes, had space for an audience of 4,000. Today, the Palace Tombs of Petra, with the 42-meter-high Hellenistic temple facade on the El-Deir Monastery, are impressive examples of Middle Eastern culture.
Chichén Itzá, the most famous Mayan temple city, served as the political and economic center of the Mayan civilization. Its various structures – the pyramid of Kukulkan, the Temple of Chac Mool, the Hall of the Thousand Pillars, and the Playing Field of the Prisoners – can still be seen today and are demonstrative of an extraordinary commitment to architectural space and composition. The pyramid itself was the last, and arguably the greatest, of all Mayan temples.
The most successful people in business approach their work differently than most. See how they think–and why it works. Regardless of industry or profession, they all share the same perspectives and beliefs. And they act on those beliefs:
1. Time doesn’t fill me. I fill time.
Deadlines and time frames establish parameters, but typically not in a good way. The average person who is given two weeks to complete a task will instinctively adjust his effort so it actually takes two weeks. Forget deadlines, at least as a way to manage your activity. Tasks should only take as long as they need to take. Do everything as quickly and effectively as you can. Then use your “free” time to get other things done just as quickly and effectively.
Average people allow time to impose its will on them; remarkable people impose their will on their time.
2. The people around me are the people I chose.
Some of your employees drive you nuts. Some of your customers are obnoxious. Some of your friends are selfish, all-about-me jerks. You chose them. If the people around you make you unhappy it’s not their fault. It’s your fault. They’re in your professional or personal life because you drew them to you–and you let them remain. Think about the type of people you want to work with. Think about the types of customers you would enjoy serving. Think about the friends you want to have. Then change what you do so you can start attracting those people. Hardworking people want to work with hardworking people. Kind people like to associate with kind people. Remarkable employees want to work for remarkable bosses.
Successful people are naturally drawn to successful people.
3. I have never paid my dues.
Dues aren’t paid, past tense. Dues get paid, each and every day. The only real measure of your value is the tangible contribution you make on a daily basis. No matter what you’ve done or accomplished in the past, you’re never too good to roll up your sleeves, get dirty, and do the grunt work. No job is ever too menial, no task ever too unskilled or boring.
Remarkably successful people never feel entitled–except to the fruits of their labor.
4. Experience is irrelevant. Accomplishments are everything.
You have “10 years in the Web design business.” Whoopee. I don’t care how long you’ve been doing what you do. Years of service indicate nothing; you could be the worst 10-year programmer in the world. I care about what you’ve done: how many sites you’ve created, how many back-end systems you’ve installed, how many customer-specific applications you’ve developed (and what kind)… all that matters is what you’ve done.
Successful people don’t need to describe themselves using hyperbolic adjectives like passionate, innovative, driven, etc. They can just describe, hopefully in a humble way, what they’ve done.
5. Failure is something I accomplish; it doesn’t just happen to me.
Ask people why they have been successful. Their answers will be filled with personal pronouns: I, me, and the sometimes too occasional we. Ask them why they failed. Most will revert to childhood and instinctively distance themselves, like the kid who says, “My toy got broken…” instead of, “I broke my toy.” They’ll say the economy tanked. They’ll say the market wasn’t ready. They’ll say their suppliers couldn’t keep up. They’ll say it was someone or something else. And by distancing themselves, they don’t learn from their failures.Occasionally something completely outside your control will cause you to fail. Most of the time, though, it’s you. And that’s okay. Every successful person has failed. Numerous times. Most of them have failed a lot more often than you. That’s why they’re successful now.
Embrace every failure: Own it, learn from it, and take full responsibility for making sure that next time, things will turn out differently.
6. Volunteers always win.
Whenever you raise your hand you wind up being asked to do more. That’s great. Doing more is an opportunity: to learn, to impress, to gain skills, to build new relationships–to do something more than you would otherwise been able to do.
Success is based on action. The more you volunteer, the more you get to act. Successful people step forward to create opportunities.Remarkably successful people sprint forward.
7. As long as I’m paid well, it’s all good.
Specialization is good. Focus is good. Finding a niche is good. Generating revenue is great. Anything a customer will pay you a reasonable price to do–as long as it isn’t unethical, immoral, or illegal–is something you should do. Your customers want you to deliver outside your normal territory? If they’ll pay you for it, fine. They want you to add services you don’t normally include? If they’ll pay you for it, fine. The customer wants you to perform some relatively manual labor and you’re a high-tech shop? Shut up, roll ’em up, do the work, and get paid.
Only do what you want to do and you might build an okay business. Be willing to do what customers want you to do and you can build a successful business. Be willing to do even more and you can build a remarkable business.
And speaking of customers…
8. People who pay me always have the right to tell me what to do.
Get over your cocky, pretentious, I-must-be-free-to-express-my-individuality self. Be that way on your own time. The people who pay you, whether customers or employers, earn the right to dictate what you do and how you do it–sometimes down to the last detail.
Instead of complaining, work to align what you like to do with what the people who pay you want you to do.
9. The extra mile is a vast, unpopulated wasteland.
Everyone says they go the extra mile. Almost no one actually does. Most people who go there think, “Wait… no one else is here… why am I doing this?” and leave, never to return. That’s why the extra mile is such a lonely place. That’s also why the extra mile is a place filled with opportunities. Be early. Stay late. Make the extra phone call. Send the extra email. Do the extra research. Help a customer unload or unpack a shipment. Don’t wait to be asked; offer. Don’t just tell employees what to do–show them what to do and work beside them. Every time you do something, think of one extra thing you can do–especially if other people aren’t doing that one thing.
Sure, it’s hard. But that’s what will make you different.And over time, that’s what will make you incredibly successful.
تعني باللغة اليونانية سُلطة خواص الناس، وسياسياً تعني طبقة اجتماعية ذات منـزلة عليا تتميز بكونها موضع اعتبار المجتمع ، وتتكون من الأعيان
الذين وصلوا إلى مراتبهم ودورهم في المجتمع عن طريق الوراثة ،واستقرت هذه المراتب على أدوار الطبقات الاجتماعية الأخرى، وكانت طبقة الارستقراطية تتمثل في الأشراف الذين كانوا ضد الملكية في القرون الوسطى ،وعندما ثبتت سلطة الملوك بإقامة الدولة الحديثة تقلصت صلاحية هذه الطبقة السياسية واحتفظت بالامتيازات المنفعية، وتتعارض الارستقراطية مع الديمقراطية
هي ناتج عملية تكوين نسق فكري عام يفسر الطبيعة والمجتمع والفرد، ويحدد موقف فكري معين يربط الأفكار في مختلف الميادين الفكرية والسياسية والأخلاقية والفلسفية
تعبير فرنسي الأصل كان يُطلق في المدن الكبيرة في العصور الوسطى على طبقة التجار وأصحاب الأعمال الذين كانوا يشغلون مركزاً وسطاً بين طبقة النبلاء من جهة والعمال من جهة أخرى، ومع انهيار المجتمع الإقطاعي قامت البورجوازية باستلام زمام الأمور الاقتصادية والسياسية واستفادت من نشوء العصر الصناعي ؛ حتى أصبحت تملك الثروات الزراعية والصناعية والعقارية، مما أدى إلى قيام الثورات الشعبية ضدها الاستلام السلطة عن طريق مصادرة الثروة الاقتصادية والسلطة السياسية.
والبورجوازية عند الاشتراكيين والشيوعيين تعني الطبقة الرأسمالية المستغلة في الحكومات الديمقراطية الغربية التي تملك وسائل الإنتاج
كلمة ذات أصل يوناني رافقت المجتمعات البشرية منذ تأسيسها ، تدل في معناها السياسي حالياً على سياسة تصبح فيها جميع السلطات بيد شخص واحد يمارسها حسب إرادته، دون اشتراط موافقة الشعب على القرارات التي يتخذها
مصطلح يوناني مؤلف من لفظين الأول (ديموس) ومعناه الشعب، والآخر (كراتوس) ومعناه سيادة، فمعنى المصطلح إذاً سيادة الشعب أو حكم الشعب . والديمقراطية نظام سياسي اجتماعي تكون فيه السيادة لجميع المواطنين ويوفر لهم المشاركة الحرة في صنع التشريعات التي تنظم الحياة العامة، والديمقراطية كنظام سياسي تقوم على حكم الشعب لنفسه مباشرة، أو بواسطة ممثلين منتخبين بحرية كاملة ( كما يُزعم ! ) ، وأما أن تكون الديمقراطية اجتماعية أي أنها أسلوب حياة يقوم على المساواة وحرية الرأي والتفكير، وأما أن تكون اقتصادية تنظم الإنتاج وتصون حقوق العمال، وتحقق العدالة الاجتماعية.
إن تشعب مقومات المعنى العام للديمقراطية وتعدد النظريات بشأنها، علاوة على تميز أنواعها وتعدد أنظمتها، والاختلاف حول غاياتها ، ومحاولة تطبيقها في مجتمعات ذات قيم وتكوينات اجتماعية وتاريخية مختلفة، يجعل مسألة تحديد نمط ديمقراطي دقيق وثابت مسألة غير واردة
عملياً، إلا أن للنظام الديمقراطي ثلاثة أركان أساسية
أ- حكم الشعب .
ج- الحرية الفكرية .
ومعلوم استغلال الدول لهذا الشعار البراق الذي لم يجد تطبيقًا حقيقيًا له على أرض الواقع ؛ حتى في أعرق الدول ديمقراطية – كما يقال – . ومعلوم أيضًا تعارض بعض مكونات هذا الشعار البراق الذي افتُتن به البعض مع أحكام الإسلام
المصدر: صيد الفوائد
Nothing incredible is accomplished alone. You need others to help you, and you need to help others. With the right team, you can form a web of connections to make the seemingly impossible practically inevitable.
1-The Instigator: Someone who pushes you, who makes you think. Who motivates you to get up and go, and try, and make things happen. You want to keep this person energized, and enthusiastic. This is the voice of inspiration.
2-The Cheerleader: This person is a huge fan, a strong supporter, and a rabid evangelist for you and your work. Work to make this person
rewarded, to keep them engaged. This is the voice of motivation.
3-The Doubter: This is the devil’s advocate, who asks the hard questions and sees problems before they arise. You need this person’s perspective. They are looking out for you, and want you to be as safe as you are successful. This is the voice of reason.
4-The Taskmaster: This is the loud and belligerent voice that demands you get things done. This person is the steward of momentum, making sure deadlines are met and goals are reached. This is the voice of progress.
5-The Connector: This person can help you find new avenues and new allies. This person breaks through roadblocks finding ways to make magic happen. You need this person to reach people and places you can’t. This is the voice of cooperation and community.
6-The Example: This is your mentor, you hero, your North Star. This is the person who you seek to emulate. This is your guiding entity, someone whose presence acts as a constant reminder that you, too, can do amazing things. You want to make this person proud. This is the voice of true authority.
Women: Multiple process
Women’s brains designed to concentrate multiple task at a time.
Women can Watch a TV and Talk over phone and cook.
Men: Single Process
Men’s brains designed to concentrate only one work at a time. Men cannot watch TV and talk over the phone at the same time. They stop the TV while Talking. They can either watch TV or talk over the phone or cook.
Women can easily learn many languages. But can not find solutions to problems.
Men can not easily learn languages, they can easily solve problems.
That’s why in average a 3 years old girl has three times higher vocabulary than a 3 year old boy.
3. ANALYTICAL SKILLS
Men’s brains has a lot of space for handling the analytical process. They can analyze and find the solution for a process and design a map of a building easily. But If a complex map is viewed by women, they cannot understand it.
Women can not understand the details of a map easily, For them it is just a dump of lines on a paper.
4. CAR DRIVING
While driving a car, man’s analytical spaces are used in his brain. He can drive a car fastly. If he sees an object at long distance, immediately his brain classifies the object (bus or van or car) direction and speed of the object and he drives accordingly.
Where woman take a long time to recognize the object direction/speed. Man’s single process mind stops the audio in the car (if any), then concentrates only on driving.
When men lie to women face to face, they get caught easily.
Women’s super natural brain observes facial expression 70%, body language 20% and words coming from the mouth 10%. Mens brain does not have this.
Women easily lie to men face to face.So guys, do not lie face to face.
6. PROBLEMS SOLVING
If a man have a lot of problems, his brain clearly classifies the problems and puts them in individual rooms in the brain and then finds the solution one by one. You can see many guys looking at the sky for a long time.
If a woman has a lot of problems, her brain can not classify the problems. she wants some one to hear that. After telling everything to a person she goes happily to bed. She does not worry about the problems being solved or not.
7. WHAT THEY WANT
Men want status, success, solutions, big process, etc…
Women want relationship, friends, family, etc…
If women are unhappy with their relations, they can not concentrate on their work.
If men are unhappy with their work, they can not concentrate on the relations.
Women use indirect language in speech.
Men use direct language.
10. HANDLING EMOTION
Women talk a lot without thinking.
Men act a lot without thinking